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Intel 80386 Reference Programmer's Manual

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up: Chapter 17 -- 80386 Instruction Set
prev: INT/INTO Call to Interrupt Procedure
next: Jcc Jump if Condition is Met


IRET/IRETD -- Interrupt Return

Opcode  Instruction  Clocks       Description

CF      IRET         22,pm=38     Interrupt return (far return and pop
                                  flags)
CF      IRET         pm=82        Interrupt return to lesser privilege
CF      IRET         ts           Interrupt return, different task (NT = 1)
CF      IRETD        22,pm=38     Interrupt return (far return and pop
                                  flags)
CF      IRETD        pm=82        Interrupt return to lesser privilege
CF      IRETD        pm=60        Interrupt return to V86 mode
CF      IRETD        ts           Interrupt return, different task (NT = 1)
Note Values of ts are given by the following table:
                            New Task

Old Task       386 TSS       386 TSS       286 TSS
               VM = 0        VM = 1

386
TSS VM=0         275           224           271

286
TSS              265           214           232

Operation

IF PE = 0
THEN (* Real-address mode *)
   IF OperandSize = 32 (* Instruction = IRETD *)
   THEN EIP := Pop();
   ELSE (* Instruction = IRET *)
      IP := Pop();
   FI;
   CS := Pop();
   IF OperandSize = 32 (* Instruction = IRETD *)
   THEN EFLAGS := Pop();
   ELSE (* Instruction = IRET *)
      FLAGS := Pop();
   FI;
ELSE (* Protected mode *)
   IF VM = 1
   THEN #GP(0);
   ELSE
      IF NT = 1
      THEN GOTO TASK-RETURN;
      ELSE
         IF VM = 1 in flags image on stack
         THEN GO TO STACK-RETURN-TO-V86;
         ELSE GOTO STACK-RETURN;
         FI;
      FI;
   FI;
FI;STACK-RETURN-TO-V86: (* Interrupted procedure was in V86 mode *)
   IF return CS selector RPL < > 3
   THEN #GP(Return selector);
   FI;
   IF top 36 bytes of stack not within limits
   THEN #SS(0);
   FI;
   Examine return CS selector and associated descriptor:
      IF selector is null, THEN #GP(0); FI;
      IF selector index not within its descriptor table limits;
      THEN #GP(Return selector);
      FI;
      IF AR byte does not indicate code segment
      THEN #GP(Return selector);
      FI;
      IF code segment DPL not = 3;
      THEN #GP(Return selector);
      FI;
      IF code segment not present
      THEN #NP(Return selector);
      FI;

   Examine return SS selector and associated descriptor:
      IF selector is null THEN #GP(0); FI;
      IF selector index not within its descriptor table limits
      THEN #GP(SS selector);
      FI;
      IF selector RPL not = RPL of return CS selector
      THEN #GP(SS selector);
      FI;
      IF AR byte does not indicate a writable data segment
      THEN #GP(SS selector);
      FI;
      IF stack segment DPL not = RPL of return CS selector
      THEN #GP(SS selector);
      FI;
      IF SS not present
      THEN #NP(SS selector);
      FI;

   IF instruction pointer not within code segment limit  THEN #GP(0);
   FI;
   EFLAGS := SS:[eSP + 8]; (* Sets VM in interrupted routine *)
   EIP := Pop();
   CS := Pop(); (* CS behaves as in 8086, due to VM = 1 *)
   throwaway := Pop(); (* pop away EFLAGS already read *)
   ES := Pop(); (* pop 2 words; throw away high-order word *)
   DS := Pop(); (* pop 2 words; throw away high-order word *)
   FS := Pop(); (* pop 2 words; throw away high-order word *)
   GS := Pop(); (* pop 2 words; throw away high-order word *)
   IF CS.RPL > CPL
   THEN
      TempESP := Pop();
      TempSS := Pop();
      SS:ESP := TempSS:TempESP;
   FI;

   (* Resume execution in Virtual 8086 mode *)

TASK-RETURN:
   Examine Back Link Selector in TSS addressed by the current task
      register:
      Must specify global in the local/global bit, else #TS(new TSS
         selector);
      Index must be within GDT limits, else #TS(new TSS selector);
      AR byte must specify TSS, else #TS(new TSS selector);
      New TSS must be busy, else #TS(new TSS selector);
      TSS must be present, else #NP(new TSS selector);
   SWITCH-TASKS without nesting to TSS specified by back link selector;
   Mark the task just abandoned as NOT BUSY;
   Instruction pointer must be within code segment limit ELSE #GP(0);

STACK-RETURN:
   IF OperandSize=32
   THEN Third word on stack must be within stack limits, else #SS(0);
   ELSE Second word on stack must be within stack limits, else #SS(0);
   FI;
   Return CS selector RPL must be >= CPL, else #GP(Return selector);
   IF return selector RPL = CPL
   THEN GOTO RETURN-SAME-LEVEL;
   ELSE GOTO RETURN-OUTER-LEVEL;
   FI;

RETURN-SAME-LEVEL:
   IF OperandSize=32
   THEN
      Top 12 bytes on stack must be within limits, else #SS(0);
      Return CS selector (at eSP+4) must be non-null, else #GP(0);
   ELSE
      Top 6 bytes on stack must be within limits, else #SS(0);
      Return CS selector (at eSP+2) must be non-null, else #GP(0);
   FI;
   Selector index must be within its descriptor table limits, else #GP
      (Return selector);
   AR byte must indicate code segment, else #GP(Return selector);
   IF non-conforming
   THEN code segment DPL must = CPL;
   ELSE #GP(Return selector);
   FI;
   IF conforming
   THEN code segment DPL must be <= CPL, else #GP(Return selector);
   Segment must be present, else #NP(Return selector);
   Instruction pointer must be within code segment boundaries, else #GP(0);
   FI;
   IF OperandSize=32
   THEN
      Load CS:EIP from stack;
      Load CS-register with new code segment descriptor;
      Load EFLAGS with third doubleword from stack;
      Increment eSP by 12;
   ELSE
      Load CS-register with new code segment descriptor;
      Load FLAGS with third word on stack;
      Increment eSP by 6;
   FI;

RETURN-OUTER-LEVEL:
   IF OperandSize=32
   THEN Top 20 bytes on stack must be within limits, else #SS(0);
   ELSE Top 10 bytes on stack must be within limits, else #SS(0);
   FI;
   Examine return CS selector and associated descriptor:
      Selector must be non-null, else #GP(0);
      Selector index must be within its descriptor table limits;
         ELSE #GP(Return selector);
      AR byte must indicate code segment, else #GP(Return selector);
      IF non-conforming
      THEN code segment DPL must = CS selector RPL;
      ELSE #GP(Return selector);
      FI;
      IF conforming
      THEN code segment DPL must be > CPL;
      ELSE #GP(Return selector);
      FI;
      Segment must be present, else #NP(Return selector);
   Examine return SS selector and associated descriptor:
      Selector must be non-null, else #GP(0);
      Selector index must be within its descriptor table limits
         ELSE #GP(SS selector);
      Selector RPL must equal the RPL of the return CS selector
         ELSE #GP(SS selector);
      AR byte must indicate a writable data segment, else #GP(SS selector);
      Stack segment DPL must equal the RPL of the return CS selector
         ELSE #GP(SS selector);
      SS must be present, else #NP(SS selector);

   Instruction pointer must be within code segment limit ELSE #GP(0);
   IF OperandSize=32
   THEN
      Load CS:EIP from stack;
      Load EFLAGS with values at (eSP+8);
   ELSE
      Load CS:IP from stack;
      Load FLAGS with values at (eSP+4);
   FI;
   Load SS:eSP from stack;
   Set CPL to the RPL of the return CS selector;
   Load the CS register with the CS descriptor;
   Load the SS register with the SS descriptor;
   FOR each of ES, FS, GS, and DS
   DO;
      IF the current value of the register is not valid for the outer level;
      THEN zero the register and clear the valid flag;
      FI;
      To be valid, the register setting must satisfy the following
         properties:
         Selector index must be within descriptor table limits;
         AR byte must indicate data or readable code segment;
         IF segment is data or non-conforming code,
         THEN DPL must be >= CPL, or DPL must be >= RPL;
   OD;

Description

In Real Address Mode, IRET pops the instruction pointer, CS, and the flags register from the stack and resumes the interrupted routine.

In Protected Mode, the action of IRET depends on the setting of the nested task flag (NT) bit in the flag register. When popping the new flag image from the stack, the IOPL bits in the flag register are changed only when CPL equals 0.

If NT equals 0, IRET returns from an interrupt procedure without a task switch. The code returned to must be equally or less privileged than the interrupt routine (as indicated by the RPL bits of the CS selector popped from the stack). If the destination code is less privileged, IRET also pops the stack pointer and SS from the stack.

If NT equals 1, IRET reverses the operation of a CALL or INT that caused a task switch. The updated state of the task executing IRET is saved in its task state segment. If the task is reentered later, the code that follows IRET is executed.

Flags Affected

All; the flags register is popped from stack

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP, #NP, or #SS, as indicated under "

Operation

" above

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 if any part of the operand being popped lies beyond address 0FFFFH

Virtual 8086 Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) fault if IOPL is less than 3, to permit emulation


up: Chapter 17 -- 80386 Instruction Set
prev: INT/INTO Call to Interrupt Procedure
next: Jcc Jump if Condition is Met