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up: Chapter 17 -- 80386 Instruction Set
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LGS/LSS/LDS/LES/LFS -- Load Full Pointer

Opcode      Instruction      Clocks   Description

C5  /r      LDS r16,m16:16   7,p=22   Load DS:r16 with pointer from memory
C5  /r      LDS r32,m16:32   7,p=22   Load DS:r32 with pointer from memory
0F  B2 /r   LSS r16,m16:16   7,p=22   Load SS:r16 with pointer from memory
0F  B2 /r   LSS r32,m16:32   7,p=22   Load SS:r32 with pointer from memory
C4  /r      LES r16,m16:16   7,p=22   Load ES:r16 with pointer from memory
C4  /r      LES r32,m16:32   7,p=22   Load ES:r32 with pointer from memory
0F  B4 /r   LFS r16,m16:16   7,p=25   Load FS:r16 with pointer from memory
0F  B4 /r   LFS r32,m16:32   7,p=25   Load FS:r32 with pointer from memory
0F  B5 /r   LGS r16,m16:16   7,p=25   Load GS:r16 with pointer from memory
0F  B5 /r   LGS r32,m16:32   7,p=25   Load GS:r32 with pointer from memory

Operation

CASE instruction OF
   LSS: Sreg is SS; (* Load SS register *)
   LDS: Sreg is DS; (* Load DS register *)
   LES: Sreg is ES; (* Load ES register *)
   LFS: Sreg is FS; (* Load FS register *)
   LGS: Sreg is DS; (* Load GS register *)
ESAC;
IF (OperandSize = 16)
THEN
   r16 := [Effective Address]; (* 16-bit transfer *)
   Sreg := [Effective Address + 2]; (* 16-bit transfer *)
   (* In Protected Mode, load the descriptor into the segment register *)
ELSE (* OperandSize = 32 *)
   r32 := [Effective Address]; (* 32-bit transfer *)
   Sreg := [Effective Address + 4]; (* 16-bit transfer *)
   (* In Protected Mode, load the descriptor into the segment register *)
FI;

Description

These instructions read a full pointer from memory and store it in the selected segment register:register pair. The full pointer loads 16 bits into the segment register SS, DS, ES, FS, or GS. The other register loads 32 bits if the operand-size attribute is 32 bits, or loads 16 bits if the operand-size attribute is 16 bits. The other 16- or 32-bit register to be loaded is determined by the r16 or r32 register operand specified.

When an assignment is made to one of the segment registers, the descriptor is also loaded into the segment register. The data for the register is obtained from the descriptor table entry for the selector given.

A null selector (values 0000-0003) can be loaded into DS, ES, FS, or GS registers without causing a protection exception. (Any subsequent reference to a segment whose corresponding segment register is loaded with a null selector to address memory causes a #GP(0) exception. No memory reference to the segment occurs.)

The following is a listing of the Protected Mode checks and actions taken in the loading of a segment register:

IF SS is loaded:
   IF selector is null THEN #GP(0); FI;
   Selector index must be within its descriptor table limits ELSE
      #GP(selector);
   Selector's RPL must equal CPL ELSE #GP(selector);
   AR byte must indicate a writable data segment ELSE #GP(selector);
   DPL in the AR byte must equal CPL ELSE #GP(selector);
   Segment must be marked present ELSE #SS(selector);
   Load SS with selector;
   Load SS with descriptor;
IF DS, ES, FS, or GS is loaded with non-null selector:
   Selector index must be within its descriptor table limits ELSE
      #GP(selector);
   AR byte must indicate data or readable code segment ELSE
      #GP(selector);
   IF data or nonconforming code
   THEN both the RPL and the CPL must be less than or equal to DPL in
      AR byte;
   ELSE #GP(selector);
   Segment must be marked present ELSE #NP(selector);
Load segment register with selector and RPL bits;
Load segment register with descriptor;
IF DS, ES, FS or GS is loaded with a null selector:
   Clear descriptor valid bit;

Flags Affected

None

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) for an illegal memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, ES, FS, or GS segments; #SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS segment; the second operand must be a memory operand, not a register; #GP(0) if a null selector is loaded into SS; #PF(fault-code) for a page fault

Real Address Mode Exceptions

The second operand must be a memory operand, not a register; Interrupt 13 if any part of the operand would lie outside of the effective address space from 0 to 0FFFFH

Virtual 8086 Mode Exceptions

Same exceptions as in Real Address Mode; #PF(fault-code) for a page fault


up: Chapter 17 -- 80386 Instruction Set
prev: LGDT/LIDT Load Global/Interrupt Descriptor Table Register
next: LLDT Load Local Descriptor Table Register