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Intel 80386 Reference Programmer's Manual

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up: Chapter 17 -- 80386 Instruction Set
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POP -- Pop a Word from the Stack

Opcode      Instruction   Clocks     Description

8F   /0     POP m16       5          Pop top of stack into memory word
8F   /0     POP m32       5          Pop top of stack into memory dword
58 + rw     POP r16       4          Pop top of stack into word register
58 + rd     POP r32       4          Pop top of stack into dword register
1F          POP DS        7,pm=21    Pop top of stack into DS
07          POP ES        7,pm=21    Pop top of stack into ES
17          POP SS        7,pm=21    Pop top of stack into SS
0F   A1     POP FS        7,pm=21    Pop top of stack into FS
0F   A9     POP GS        7,pm=21    Pop top of stack into GS

Operation

IF StackAddrSize = 16
THEN
   IF OperandSize = 16
   THEN
      DEST := (SS:SP); (* copy a word *)
      SP := SP + 2;
   ELSE (* OperandSize = 32 *)
      DEST := (SS:SP); (* copy a dword *)
      SP := SP + 4;
   FI;
ELSE (* StackAddrSize = 32 * )
   IF OperandSize = 16
   THEN
      DEST := (SS:ESP); (* copy a word *)
      ESP := ESP + 2;
   ELSE (* OperandSize = 32 *)
      DEST := (SS:ESP); (* copy a dword *)
      ESP := ESP + 4;
   FI;
FI;

Description

POP replaces the previous contents of the memory, the register, or the segment register operand with the word on the top of the 80386 stack, addressed by SS:SP (address-size attribute of 16 bits) or SS:ESP (addresssize attribute of 32 bits). The stack pointer SP is incremented by 2 for an operand-size of 16 bits or by 4 for an operand-size of 32 bits. It then points to the new top of stack.

POP CS is not an 80386 instruction. Popping from the stack into the CS register is accomplished with a RET instruction.

If the destination operand is a segment register (DS, ES, FS, GS, or SS), the value popped must be a selector. In protected mode, loading the selector initiates automatic loading of the descriptor information associated with that selector into the hidden part of the segment register; loading also initiates validation of both the selector and the descriptor information.

A null value (0000-0003) may be popped into the DS, ES, FS, or GS register without causing a protection exception. An attempt to reference a segment whose corresponding segment register is loaded with a null value causes a #GP(0) exception. No memory reference occurs. The saved value of the segment register is null.

A POP SS instruction inhibits all interrupts, including NMI, until after execution of the next instruction. This allows sequential execution of POP SS and POP eSP instructions without danger of having an invalid stack during an interrupt. However, use of the LSS instruction is the preferred method of loading the SS and eSP registers.

Loading a segment register while in protected mode results in special checks and actions, as described in the following listing:

IF SS is loaded:
   IF selector is null THEN #GP(0);
   Selector index must be within its descriptor table limits ELSE
      #GP(selector);
   Selector's RPL must equal CPL ELSE #GP(selector);
   AR byte must indicate a writable data segment ELSE #GP(selector);
   DPL in the AR byte must equal CPL ELSE #GP(selector);
   Segment must be marked present ELSE #SS(selector);
   Load SS register with selector;
   Load SS register with descriptor;

IF DS, ES, FS or GS is loaded with non-null selector:
   AR byte must indicate data or readable code segment ELSE
      #GP(selector);
   IF data or nonconforming code
   THEN both the RPL and the CPL must be less than or equal to DPL in
      AR byte
   ELSE #GP(selector);
   FI;
   Segment must be marked present ELSE #NP(selector);
   Load segment register with selector;
   Load segment register with descriptor;

IF DS, ES, FS, or GS is loaded with a null selector:
   Load segment register with selector
   Clear valid bit in invisible portion of register

Flags Affected

None

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP, #SS, and #NP if a segment register is being loaded; #SS(0) if the current top of stack is not within the stack segment; #GP(0) if the result is in a nonwritable segment; #GP(0) for an illegal memory operand effective address in the CS, DS, ES, FS, or GS segments; #SS(0) for an illegal address in the SS segment; #PF(fault-code) for a page fault

Real Address Mode Exceptions

Interrupt 13 if any part of the operand would lie outside of the effective address space from 0 to 0FFFFH

Virtual 8086 Mode Exceptions

Same exceptions as in real-address mode; #PF(fault-code) for a page fault


up: Chapter 17 -- 80386 Instruction Set
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next: POPA/POPAD Pop all General Registers